Autonomie et enseignement à distance
Même si l'autonomie n'est pas un concept très clair, autant du point de vue théorique que pratique, il demeure au centre de la philosophie de l'éducation des adultes et un concept clé de l'enseignement à distance. En nous basant sur le concept de métacognition, nous définissons l'autonomie comme la gestion d'un ou des aspects de son activité d'apprentissage. Cela suppose des connaissances sur l'apprenant, les tâches cognitives et les stratégies mises en oeuvre pour réaliser ces tâches. L'autonomie renvoie aussi au contrôle de l'activité et comprend la planification, la régulation et l'évaluation de la démarche d'apprentissage. Sur un plan plus pratique, trois aspects d'un cours conçu pour l'apprentissage à distance peuvent permettre à l'étudiant d'exercer ou de développer son autonomie: le contenu correspond à la matière du cours, la structure à la façon dont le cours se déroulera et l'interaction aux relations possibles entre l'apprenant et d'autres personnes.
Although the concept of autonomy is not very clear, it remains a focal point of adult education philosophy and a key concept in distance education, as much from a theorical point of view as a practical one. With reference to the concept of metacognition, we define autonomy as the management of one, or some aspects of one's learning activity. It presupposes knowledge in cognitive tasks and in strategies to be implemented to realise those tasks on the part of the learner. Autonomy also refers to the control of the learning activities such as planning, regulation and evaluation of the learning procedure. In a more practical way, three aspects of a course conceived for distance education, should help student to practice or to develop his autonomy: the content, which corresponds to the course material; the structure, which corresponds to the way the course will proceed; and the interaction, which refers to the potential relationships between the learner and other persons.
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