Educating Adults for Citizenship: Critiquing Adequate Language Practices and Canada’s Citizenship Test
Keywords:Adult Education, Citizenship, Canada, Literacy, Immigrants
In 2012, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) implemented a requirement that all aspiring Canadians who wish to take the Citizenship Test must have an adequate level of English or French language skills, defined as Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB) 4. The CLB 4 language policy directly and, we argue, problematically links language abilities with the right to citizenship for new immigrants, and relatedly, assumes a deficit conception of literacy. We examine the discourses embedded within the citizenship study guide, Discover Canada: The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship (2012), the new language requirement policy, and the CIC website in order to expose how these place problematic restrictions on new immigrants who aspire to become Canadian.
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