Taking Stock of Research on Immigration and Adult Education in Canada: 1981- 2020
Keywords:Immigration; Adult education; Intersectionality; Social inequality; Race; Class; Gender; Sexual orientation; Canada
This article takes stock of research on immigration and adult education in Canada between 1981 and 2020. Drawing on intersectionality theory, the analysis focuses on how race, gender, class, and sexual orientation intersect to shape the experiences of adult immigrant learners in producing social inequality. The findings reveal that although Canadian adult educators have progressively adopted an intersectional approach to the study of immigrant experiences in Canada, this shift is insufficient for building inclusive learning spaces that are capable of assisting marginalized immigrants in overcoming multifaceted challenges in the host society. In light of this, we propose an integrative intersectional framework that goes beyond the existing triple analysis embracing racialized immigrants as actors and agents of change with reference to the specifics of everyday reality through the struggle for identity and social equality. This approach also allows adult educators to examine the internal and external layers of complexity between social categories and structural power, constructing a more integrative landscape to capture social and power relations.
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