From Houle to Dirkx: Continuing Professional Education (CPE), A Critical State-Of-The-Field Review
Learning as a central focus in the discourse on professional development is well grounded in the educational and professional development literature. Yet, despite this consensus, and significant research on how professionals learn, most professional development and continuing professional education (CPE) practices continue to focus on delivering content rather than enhancing learning. This paper provides an update and overview of adult education’s ongoing critique of and contributions to debates about the aims, structure, and purposes of continuing professional development and CPE. The author profiles a long-standing and continuing effort by educational scholars to reclaim this vital area of study and practice, in order to bring their learning focus as well as their critical questions to bear on it.
Bierema, L., & Eraut, M. (2004). Workplace-focused learning: Perspectives on continuing professional education and human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6(1), 52-68. doi: 10.1177/1523422303260859
Billett, S. (2001a). Learning in the workplace: Strategies for effective practice. Crows Nest, NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Billett, S. (2001b). Learning through work: Workplace affordances and individual engagement. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13(5), 209–214.
Billett, S. (2004). Learning through work: Workplace participatory practices. In H. Rainbird, A. Fuller, & A. Munro (Eds.), Workplace learning in context (pp. 109–125). New York: Routledge.
Billett, S. (2008). Subjectivity, learning and work: Sources and legacies. Vocations and Learning, 1(2), 149–171.
Cervero, R. M. (2000). Trends and issues in continuing professional education. In B. J. Daley & V. W. Mott (Eds.), Charting a course for continuing professional education (pp. 3-12). New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 86. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Cervero, R. M. (2001). Continuing professional education in transition, 1981- 2000. International Journal of Lifelong Learning, 20(1-2), 16-30.
Cervero R. M., & Daley, B. J. (2011). Continuing professional education: Multiple stakeholders and agendas. In K. Rubenson (Ed.), Adult learning and education, (pp. 140-145). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Cervero, R. M., & Langone, C. A. (2001). Negotiating about power, frames, and continuing education: A case study in public health. Adult Education Quarterly, 15(2), 128-145. doi: 10.1177/07417130122087188.
Choy, S. (2009). Transformative learning in the workplace. Journal of Transformative Education, 7(1), 65-84. doi: 10.1177/1541344609334720
Daley, B.J. (2000). Learning in professional practice. In B. Daley & V. Mott (Eds.), In B. J. Daley & V. W. Mott (Eds.), Charting a course for continuing professional education (pp. 33-43). New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 86. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Daley, B.J. (2001). Learning and professional practice: A study of four professions. Adult Education Quarterly, 52 (1), 39-54. doi: 10.1177/074171360105200104.
Daley, B. J. (2002). Continuing professional education: Creating the future. Adult Learning, 13, 15-17. doi:10.1177/1045159502201300406.
Daley B. J., & Jeris, L. H. (Eds.). (2004). Boundary spanning. Advances in Developing Human
Resources, 6 (1), (5-8 0. doi: 10.1177/152342230461001
deGroot, Endedijk, Jaarsma, Jan Simons and van Beukelen (2013). Critically reflective dialogues
in learning communities of professionals. Studies in Continuing Education, 15-37. doi:
Dirkx, J. (2008). Care of the self: Mythopoetic dimensions of professional preparation and development. In T. Leonard & P. Willis (Eds.), Pedagogies of the imagination: Mythopoetic curriculum in educational practice (pp. 65-83). New York: Springer.
Dirkx, J. (2013). Leaning in and leaning back at the same time: Toward spirituality of
work-related learning. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15 (4), 356-369. doi:10.1177/1523422313498562
Dirkx, J., & Austin, A. (2002). A model of theoretical orientations in professional development. Unpublished figure included in graduate coursework, Michigan State University, Lansing.
Dirkx, J.M., & Austin, A. E. (2005). Making sense of continuing professional development: Towards an integrated vision of lifelong learning in the professions. Paper presented at the AHRD Preconference on Continuing Professional Education: Exploring a Model of Theoretical Orientations in Professional Development, Estes Park, CO, 23 and 24 February, 2005.
Dirkx, J., Giley, J. W., & Mayunich-Gilley, A.(2004). Change theory in CPE and HRD: Toward a holistic view of learning and change in work. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6 (1), 35-51. doi: 10.1177/1523422303260825
English, L. M., Fenwick, T. J., & Parson, J. (2003). Spirituality of adult education and training. Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Fenwick, T. J. (2000). Expanding conceptualizations of experiential learning. A review of five primary perspectives on cognition. Adult Education Quarterly, 50 (4), 243-272.
Gravini, M. (2007). Unveiling professional learning: Shifting from delivery of courses to an understanding of the processes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 688-704.
Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action: Reason and the rationalization of society. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Habermas, J. (1987). The theory of communicative action—lifeworld and system: A critique of functionalist reason. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Hansman, C. A. (2002). Critical Perspectives on Mentoring: Trends and Issues
ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education Information Series No. 388.
Houle, C.O. (1980). Continuing learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Jeris, L. H. (2010). Continuing professional education. In C. E. Kasworm, A. D. Rose, & J. M. Ross-Gordon (Eds.), Handbook of adult and continuing education (pp. 275–282). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jeris, L. H., & Conway, A. E. (2003). Time to regrade the terrain of continuing professional Education: Views from practitioners. Adult Learning, 14 (1), 34-36. doi:10.1177/104515950301400110
Jeris, L. H. & Daley, B. (2004). Orienteering for boundary spanning: Reflections on the journey to date and suggestions for moving forward. In. B. Daley & L. Jeris (Eds.), Boundary spanning. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6 (1), 101-115, doi:10.1177/1523422303260420.
Lips-Wiersma, M., & Morris, L. (2009). Discriminating between meaningful work and “management of meaning.” Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 491-511.
Mott, V. W. (Ed.). (2001). Continuing professional education in today’s changing world. Adult Learning, 12(1), doi: 10.1177/104515950101200101
Mott, V. W. (2000). The development of professional expertise in the workplace. In V.W. Mott & B. J. Daley (Eds.), Charting a course for Continuing Professional Education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 86 (pp. 23-33). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mott, V. W., & Daley B. J. (Eds.). (2000): Charting a course for Continuing Professional Education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 86. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Palmer, P. J. (1998). The courage to teach: Exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Palmer, P. J. (2004). A hidden wholeness: The journey towards and undivided life. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Queeney, D. S. (2000). Continuing professional education. In A. Wilson & E. Hayes (Eds.), Handbook of adult & continuing education (pp. 375-392). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Ross Gordon, J. M., & Brooks, A. K. (2004). Diversity in human resource development and continuing professional education: What does it mean for the workforce, clients, and professionals? In. B. Daley & L. Jeris (Eds.), Advances in Developing Human Resources, 6 (1), 5-8. doi:10.1177/1523422303260418
Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action.Aldershot, UK: Arena.
Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Servage, L. (2008). Critical and transformative practices in professional learning. Teacher Education Quarterly. 35 (1), 63-77.
Tennant, M. (2012). The learning self: Understanding the potential for transformation.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Tobias, R. (2003). Continuing professional education and professionalization: Travelling without map or a compass. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 22 (5), 445-456.
Wilson, A. L. (2000). Professional practice in the modern world. In B. Daley & V. Mott (Eds.), Charting a course for continuing professional education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No. 86 (pp. 80-86). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wilson, A. L. (2001). Professionalization: A politics of identity. In C. A. Hansman & P.A. Sissel (Eds.). Special Issue: Understanding and negotiating the political landscape of adult education. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, No. 91 (pp. 73-84). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wilson, A. L., & Cervero, R. M. (2006). The song remains the same: The selective tradition of technical rationality in adult education and program planning theory. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 16 (2), 84-108.
Webster-Wright, A. (2009). Reframing professional development through understanding authentic professional learning. Review of Educational Research, 79(2), 702-739. doi: 10.3102/0034654308330970.
Webster-Wright. A. (2010). Authentic professional learning: Making a difference through learning at work. Professional and Practice Based Learning Series. London UK: Springer.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.
West, L. (2001). Doctors on the edge: General practitioners, health and learning in the inner city. London: Free Association Books.
How to Cite
Authors of manuscripts accepted for publication will be required to assign copyright to the Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education/L’Association canadienne pour l’étude de l’éducation des adultes (CJSAE). CJSAE requests that, as the creator(s)/author(s) of the manuscript your are submitting assign certain rights to the manuscript to the CJSAE in exchange for undertaking to publish the article in print and electronic form and, in general, to pursue its dissemination throughout the world. The rights the CJSAE requests are:
- The right to publish the article in print and electronic form or in any other form it may choose that is in keeping with its role as a scholarly journal with the goal of disseminating the work as widely as possible;
- The right to be the sole publisher of the article for a period of 12 months;
- The right to make the article available to the public within a period of not more than 24 months, as determined by relevant journal staff of the CJSAE;
- The right to grant republication rights to itself or others in print, electronic, or any other form, with any revenues accrued to be shared equally between the author(s) and the journal;
- The right to administer permission to use portions of the article as requested by others, seeking recompense when the CJSAE sees it as warrented;
- The right to seek or take advantage of opportunities to have the article included in a database aimed at increasing awareness of it;
- As the author(s), the CJSAE wishes you to retain the right to republish the article, with acknowledgement of the CJSAE as the original publisher, in whole or in part, in any other pbulication of your own, including any anthology that you might edit with up to three others;
- As the author(s), the CJSAE withes you to retain the right to place the article on your personal Web page or that of your university or institution. The CJSAE askes that you include this notice: A fully edited, peer-reviewed version of this article was first published by the Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, <Year>, <Volume>, <Issue>, <Page Numbers>.
BY AGREEING TO THE FOREGOING, YOU CONFIRM THAT THE MANUSCRIPT YOU ARE SUBMITTING HAS NOT BEEN PUBLISHED ELSEWHERE IN WHOLE OR IN PART, AND THAT NO AGREEMENT TO PUBLISH IS OUTSTANDING.
SHOULD THE ARTICLE CONTAIN MATERIAL WHICH REQUIRES WRITTEN PERMISSION FOR INCLUSION, YOU AGREE THAT IT IS YOUR OBLIGATION IN LAW TO IDENTIFY SUCH MATERIAL TO THE EDITOR OF THE CJSAE AND TO OBTAIN SUCH PERMISSION. THE CJSAE WILL NOT PAY ANY PERMISSION FEES. SHOULD THE CJSAE BE OF THE OPINION THAT SUCH PERMISSION IS NECESSARY, IT WILL REQUIRE YOU TO PURSUE SHUCH PERMISSSION PRIOR TO PUBLICATION.
AS AUTHOR(S), YOU WARRANT THAT THE ARTICLE BEING SUBMITTED IS ORIGINAL TO YOU.
Provided the foregoing terms are satisfactory, and that you are in agreement with them, please indicate your acceptance by checking the appropriate box and proceed with your submission.
This copyright agreement was extracted with permission from the "Best practices guide to scholarly journal publishing" (2007), produced by the Canadian Association of Learned Journals (CALJ).